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This Bill was introduced on 9 December 2019 by the Minister of Home Affairs Amit Shah in the Lok Sabha and was passed on 10 December 2019. The Rajya Sabha also passed the bill on 11th December. The Citizenship Act seeks to amend the definition of illegal immigrant for Hindu, Sikh, Parsi, Buddhist, Christian and Jain immigrants from Pakistan, Afghanistan and Bangladesh, who have lived in India without documentation.

In 2015 and 2016, the government exempted specified groups of illegal migrants from provisions of the 1946 and 1920 Acts. They were Hindus, Sikhs, Buddhists, Jains, Parsis and Christians from Afghanistan, Bangladesh and Pakistan, who reached India on or before December 31, 2014.

The fundamental criticism of the Bill has been that it specifically targets Muslims. Critics argue that it is violation of Article 14 of the Constitution, which guarantees the right to equality.

The Act applies to those who were “forced or compelled to seek shelter in India due to persecution on the ground of religion”. It aims to protect such people from proceedings of illegal migration.

The amendment relaxes the requirement of naturalization from 11 years to 5 years as a specific condition for applicants belonging to these six religions.

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NRC is the National Register of Citizens. The NRC identified illegal immigrants from Assam on the Supreme Court's order.

Since entry of such Bangladeshi nationals into the country is clandestine and surreptitious, it is not possible to have accurate data of such Bangladeshi nationals living in the various parts of the country.

Except in Bengali speakers’ dominated Barak valley, people in other parts fear CAA will lead to lakhs of Hindus from Bangladesh swamping indigenous communities, burdening resources and threatening their language, culture and tradition.

As soon as the Citizenship Amendment Bill was passed in both houses of Parliament and given Presidential assent making it a law, loud murmurs started about another move- the National Register of Citizens or NRC.

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GDP measures the monetary value of all goods and services produced within the domestic boundaries of a country within a time-frame (generally, a year). It is slightly different from the other commonly used statistic for national incomethe GNP.

Private consumption, which contributes nearly 55-60% to India’s GDP, has been slowing down.While the reduced income growth of households has reduced urban consumption, drought/near-drought conditions in three of the past five years coupled with the collapse of food prices have taken a heavy toll on rural consumption.

As per the data released by the National Statistical Office India’s July-September 2019 (Quarter 2) gross domestic product (GDP) growth rate fell to 4.5%, the lowest in more than six years, compared with 7.1% in the same quarter of 2018-19. The low rate of expansion was mainly on account of a weak manufacturing, falling consumer demand and private investment, and a drop in exports due to a global slowdown.

  • What is GDP and GNP?
  • How GDP calculated?
  • Why GDP is falling?
  • Conclusion
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Section 144 of the Criminal Procedure Code (CrPC) of 1973 authorizes the district magistrate, a sub-divisional magistrate or any other executive magistrate of any state or territory to issue an order to prohibit the assembly of five or more people in an area.

Section 144 is imposed in urgent cases of nuisance or apprehended danger of some event that has the potential to cause trouble or damage to human life or property.

  • What is section 144 CrPC?
  • What is an ‘Unlawful assembly’?
  • Powers of the administration
  • Provisions of Section 144
  • Duration of Section 144 order
  • Constitutional Validity of section 144CrPC
  • Difference between section 144 CrPC and curfew
  • Criticism of sec 144 CrPC
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CoronaViruses are a family of viruses recognized for holding strains that trigger doubtlessly lethal illnesses in mammals and birds. In people, they usually unfold through airborne droplets of fluid produced by contaminated people.

Doctors at present acknowledge seven forms of CoronaVirus that may infect people. Common types of embody:

  • 229E (alpha coronavirus)
  • NL63 (alpha coronavirus)
  • OC43 (beta coronavirus)
  • HKU1 (beta coronavirus)

Symptoms vary from person-to-person with COVID-19. It could produce few or no signs. However, it could additionally result in extreme sickness and could also be deadly. Common signs embrace:

  • fever
  • breathlessness
  • cough